Diabetic neuropathy is a type of nerve damage that can occur in diabetes. High blood sugar (glucose) can damage nerves throughout the body. Diabetic neuropathy most commonly damages the nerves in the legs and feet.
Depending on the nerves affected, symptoms of diabetic neuropathy can range from pain and numbness in your legs and feet to problems with your digestive system, urinary tract, blood vessels, and heart. Some people have mild symptoms. But for others, diabetic neuropathy can be quite painful and debilitating. Neuropathy, diabetic Treatment in Hyderabad
There are four main types of diabetic neuropathy. You can have one type or more than one type of neuropathy.
Your symptoms will depend on your type and the nerves affected. Usually symptoms develop gradually. You may not be able to tell that everything is fine until there is significant nerve damage.
The exact cause of any type of neuropathy is unknown. Researchers believe that over time, uncontrolled high blood sugar damages nerves and affects their ability to send signals, leading to diabetic neuropathy. High blood sugar also weakens the walls of small blood vessels (capillaries) that supply oxygen and nutrients to nerves.
Anyone with diabetes can develop neuropathy. However, these risk factors make you more susceptible to nerve damage:
- Poor blood sugar control. Uncontrolled blood sugar puts you at risk for all complications of diabetes, including nerve damage.
- History of diabetes. Your risk of diabetic neuropathy increases the longer you have diabetes, especially if your blood sugar is not well controlled.
- Kidney disease. Diabetes can damage the kidneys. Kidney damage sends toxins into the bloodstream that can lead to nerve damage.
- To be overweight. A body mass index (BMI) of 25 or more can increase your risk of diabetic neuropathy.
- Smoke. Smoking narrows and hardens your arteries and reduces blood flow to your legs and feet. This makes it difficult for wounds to heal and damages peripheral nerves.
Diabetic neuropathy can lead to a number of serious complications, including:
- Loss of consciousness due to hypoglycemia. Blood sugar levels below 70 milligrams per deciliter (mg / dL) usually cause tremors, sweating, and rapid heartbeat. However, if you have autonomic neuropathy, you may not notice these warning signs.
- Loss of a toe, foot, or leg. Nerve damage can cause you to lose the feeling in your feet, so even small cuts can lead to sores or ulcers without you realizing. In severe cases, the infection can spread to the bones or lead to tissue death. Removal (amputation) of a toe, foot, or even the lower leg may be required.
- Urinary tract infections and urinary incontinence. If the nerves that control your bladder are damaged, you may not be able to empty your bladder completely. Bacteria can build up in the bladder and kidneys and cause urinary tract infections. Nerve damage can also affect your ability to tell when to urinate or control the muscles that release urine, causing leakage (incontinence).
- Sudden drop in blood pressure. Damage to the nerves that control blood flow can affect your body’s ability to adjust blood pressure. This can cause a sharp drop in pressure when standing after sitting, which can lead to dizziness and fainting.
- Digestive problems. When nerve damage affects your digestive tract, constipation or diarrhea, or both, can occur. Nerve damage from diabetes can lead to gastroparesis, a condition in which the stomach empties too slowly or not at all, causing gas and indigestion.
You can prevent or delay diabetic neuropathy and its complications by carefully controlling your blood sugar and taking good care of your feet.
Blood sugar management
The American Diabetes Association recommends people with diabetes take an A1C test at least twice a year. This test measures your average blood sugar for the past two to three months. Neuropathy, diabetic Treatment in Hyderabad