Myelofibrosis is a rare type of bone marrow cancer that affects the normal production of blood cells in your body.
Myelofibrosis causes extensive scars in the bone marrow, leading to severe anemia, which can lead to weakness and fatigue. It can also cause low numbers of blood clotting cells called platelets, which increases the risk of bleeding. Myelofibrosis often causes an enlarged spleen.
Myelofibrosis is considered to be chronic leukemia – cancer that affects the hematopoietic tissues of the body. Myelofibrosis belongs to a group of conditions called myeloproliferative diseases.
Some people with myelofibrosis have no symptoms and may not need immediate treatment. Other people with more severe forms of the disease may need aggressive treatment right away. Treatment for myelofibrosis, which focuses on symptom relief, can include a variety of options. Myelofibrosis Treatment in Hyderabad
Myelofibrosis usually develops slowly. At a very early stage, many people have no signs or symptoms.
As the disruption to normal blood cell production increases, signs and symptoms may include:
- Feeling tired, weak, or short of breath, usually due to anemia
- Pain or fullness under your ribs on the left side due to an enlarged spleen
- Easy bruising
- Easy bleeding
- Sweating excessively while sleeping (night sweats)
- Bone pain
Myelofibrosis occurs when stem cells in the bone marrow develop changes (mutations) in their DNA. Stem cells can replicate and divide into several specialized cells that make up your blood – red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets.
It is not known what causes genetic mutations in bone marrow stem cells. Myelofibrosis Treatment in Hyderabad
When mutated blood stem cells replicate and divide, they pass the mutations on to new cells. As more and more of these mutant cells emerge, they begin to have serious effects on blood production.
The end result is usually a shortage of red blood cells – which causes the anemia characteristic of myelofibrosis – and an oversupply of white blood cells with varying levels of platelets. In people with myelofibrosis, the normally spongy bone marrow becomes scarred.
Several specific genetic mutations have been identified in people with myelofibrosis. The most common is the Janus Kinase 2 (JAK2) gene. Knowing whether the JAK2 gene or others are associated with your myelofibrosis can help determine your prognosis and treatment.
Although the cause of myelofibrosis is often unknown, certain factors are known to increase your risk:
- Age. Myelofibrosis can affect anyone, but it is most commonly diagnosed in people over the age of 50.
- Another blood cell disease. A small proportion of people with myelofibrosis develop the disease as a complication of essential thrombocythemia or polycythemia vera.
- Exposure to certain chemicals. Myelofibrosis has been linked to exposure to industrial chemicals such as toluene and benzene.
- Radiation exposure. People who are exposed to very high levels of radiation are at increased risk of myelofibrosis. Myelofibrosis Treatment in Hyderabad