Hematuria (blood in the urine)
What is hematuria?
Hematuria is the presence of blood in a person’s urine. The two types of hematuria are

gross hematuria – when a person can see blood in their urine
microscopic hematuria – when a person cannot see blood in their urine but is seen under a microscope
Images of a male and female torso showing the respective urinary tract.
The male and female urinary tract
What is the urinary tract?
The urinary tract is the body’s drainage system for removing waste and extra fluid. The urinary system includes

two kidneys
two ureters
the bladder
The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs, each about the size of a fist. They are just below the rib cage, one on each side of the spine. Each day, the kidneys filter about 120 to 150 liters of blood to produce about 1 to 2 liters of urine, which is made up of waste and extra fluid. Children produce less urine than adults. Urine flows from the kidneys to the bladder through tubes called ureters. The bladder stores urine until it is released through urination. When the bladder empties, urine flows out of the body through a tube called the urethra at the bottom of the bladder.

What causes hematuria?
The reasons why people may have blood in their urine are:

Bladder, kidney or prostate infection
vigorous exercise
Viral diseases such as hepatitis – a virus that causes liver disease and inflammation of the liver
sexual activity
Endometriosis – a problem in women that occurs when the type of tissue that normally lines the uterus grows elsewhere, such as in the bladder
The most serious reasons for hematuria are:

Kidney cancer in the bladder
Inflammation of the kidney, urethra, bladder, or prostate – a walnut-shaped gland in men that surrounds the urethra and helps produce semen
Bleeding disorders such as hemophilia
Sickle cell disease – a genetic condition in which a person’s body makes abnormally shaped red blood cells
Polycystic kidney disease – a genetic disease in which many cysts develop on a person’s kidneys
Who is most likely to develop hematuria?
People at greater risk of developing hematuria may

have an enlarged prostate
Have urinary stones
Take certain medications, including blood thinners, aspirin, and other pain relievers, as well as antibiotics
Do strenuous exercises such as B. long distance running
have a bacterial or viral infection such as strep or hepatitis
have a family history of kidney disease
have a disease or condition that affects one or more organs
What are the symptoms of hematuria?
People with severe hematuria have pink, red, or brown urine. Even a small amount of blood in the urine can cause the urine to change color. In most cases, people with severe hematuria do not have any other signs or symptoms. People with severe hematuria, which contains blood clots in the urine, may have bladder pain or back pain.

How is hematuria diagnosed?
A doctor diagnoses hematuria or the cause of hematuria with

a medical history
a physical exam
Urine analysis
additional tests
Medical background
A medical history can help a healthcare professional diagnose the cause of hematuria. He or she will ask the patient to provide a medical history, a review of symptoms, and a list of prescription and over-the-counter medications. Healthcare professionals will also ask questions about current and past medical conditions.

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