Cancer refers to one of several diseases characterized by the development of abnormal cells that divide uncontrollably and have the ability to infiltrate and destroy normal body tissues. Cancer often has the ability to spread throughout the body.
- Cancer is the second leading cause of death worldwide. However, thanks to better cancer screening and treatment, survival rates for many cancers are improving.Cancer Treatment Hyderabad
The signs and symptoms caused by cancer vary depending on the part of the body affected.
- Some general, but not specific, cancer-related signs and symptoms include:
A lump or thickened area that can be felt under the skin
Changes in weight, including unintended gains or losses
Skin changes such as yellowing, darkening, or reddening of the skin, wounds that do not heal, or changes to existing moles
Changes in bowel or bladder habits
Persistent cough or difficulty breathing
Indigestion or persistent discomfort after eating
Persistent and unexplained muscle or joint pain
Cancer is caused by changes (mutations) in the DNA in cells. The DNA in a cell is packaged in a large number of individual genes, each of which contains a series of instructions that tell the cell what functions to perform and how to grow and divide. Errors in the instructions can cause normal cell function to stop and a cell to become cancerous.Cancer Treatment Hyderabad
- What do genetic mutations do?
A gene mutation can cause a healthy cell to:
- Enable rapid growth. A genetic mutation can tell a cell to grow and divide faster. This creates many new cells, all of which have the same mutation.
The uncontrolled growth of cells cannot be stopped. Normal cells know when to stop growing so you have just the right number for each cell type. Cancer cells lose the controls (tumor suppressor genes) that tell them when to stop growing. A mutation in a tumor suppressor gene allows cancer cells to continue to grow and accumulate.
Make mistakes when fixing DNA defects. DNA repair genes look for errors in a cell’s DNA and make corrections. A mutation in a DNA repair gene can prevent other errors from being corrected and the cells become cancerous.
Although doctors have some idea what can increase your risk of cancer, the majority of cancers occur in people who are not known to have any risk factors. Factors known to increase your risk of cancer include:
- Your age
- Cancer can take decades to develop. Because of this, most people diagnosed with cancer are 65 years of age or older. Although more common in the elderly, cancer is not exclusively an adult disease – cancer can be diagnosed at any age.Cancer Treatment Hyderabad
There is no surefire way to prevent cancer. However, doctors have identified several ways to lower your risk of cancer, such as:
- Stop smoking. If you smoke, quit. If you don’t smoke, don’t start. Smoking is linked to many types of cancer – not just lung cancer. If you stop now, you will lower your risk of cancer in the future.
- Avoid excessive exposure to the sun. The harmful ultraviolet (UV) rays from the sun can increase your risk of skin cancer. Limit your sun exposure by staying in the shade, wearing protective clothing, or applying sunscreen.
- Eat healthy. Choose a diet that is high in fruits and vegetables. Choose whole grains and lean protein.
- Exercise almost every day of the week. Regular exercise is associated with a lower risk of cancer. Aim for at least 30 minutes of exercise most days of the week.Cancer Treatment Hyderabad