An anal fistula is a connection between internal organs or the body and the anal canal. It is an anomaly. Basically, a fistula is neither fatal nor dangerous, but can be very painful and therefore needs to be treated. Here, the internal epithelium or the lining of the anus forms a passage with the skin near the rectum. This blockage or constipation can be caused by excision, infection, and a buildup of pus or other similar abnormalities. From a medical point of view, the disease is called fistula in the ano.
Symptoms often include pain and discomfort during a bowel movement. If an abscess forms, pus may collect in the anal canal, which may or may not drain. If the opening to the outside is blocked, pus can build up and cause another infection. For such reasons, having an anal fistula operated on immediately is inevitable. Surgery is needed in most cases because they do not heal on their own.
The operation to treat a fistula is performed under general anesthesia and takes no more than 30 minutes. unless there is a complication. The most critical risk is the elasticity of the sphincter muscles in the anus. Sphincters are the tissues that help with contractions and relaxation around the anus so that bowel movements are possible. If these muscles are affected, bowel incontinence can occur. In such a condition, the patient may not be able to control the stool. Following this, a number of specific operations may be required to function properly. If the fistula is under the sphincter, the doctor will make an incision in the skin. The lesion is left open to allow natural healing. On the contrary, if the anomaly is not limited to one area and there is a branching of passages above the muscles of the sphincter; then the area is sewn through Seton’s stitch, through which infected fluid or pus can drain easily.